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Cheeseburger digestion essay - INDE

Using the digestive system and its many organs through the process of digestion and metabolism is how our bodies receive the energy it needs to continue....

The Atwater specific factor system, a refinement based onre-examination of the Atwater system, was introduced in 1955 by Merrill and Watt(1955). It integrates the results of 50 years of research and derives differentfactors for proteins, fats and carbohydrates, depending on the foods in whichthey are found. Whereas Atwater used average values of protein, fat and totalcarbohydrate, Merrill and Watt emphasized that there are ranges in the heats ofcombustion and in the coefficients of digestibility of different proteins, fatsand carbohydrates, and these should be reflected in the energy values applied tothem. The following two exampleshelp to make this clearer: 1) Because proteins differ in their amino acidcomposition, they also differ in their heats of combustion. Thus, the heat ofcombustion of protein in rice is approximately 20 percent higher than that ofprotein in potatoes, and different energy factors should be used for each. 2)Digestibility (and fibre content) of a grain may be affected by how it ismilled. Thus, the available energy from equal amounts (weight) of whole-wheatflour (100 percent extraction) and extensively milled wheat flour (70 percentextraction) will be different.

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FREE The Digestion Process Essay - Example Essays

The process of changing the food as the source of energy for human body is known as the digestive system.

As part of the process for this recommendation, the magnitudeof the effect of using NME instead of ME factors was examined in relation toindividual foods and mixed diets. In the case of individual foods, thedifference between the use of NME and ME factors for the estimated energycontent is minimal for foods with low protein and fibre contents, but can bequite large for foods that are high in protein and/or fibre. (The maximumdifferences for protein and fibre supplements would be 24 and 27 percent,respectively.) The use of NME rather than ME factors has less effect on theestimation of energy content for most mixed diets than it has for individualfoods, because about 75 percent of the energy in mixed diets derives from fatand available carbohydrate, which have the same NME and ME factors (Table 3.3).Estimates of the energy provided by “representative” mixeddiets showed that the use of NMEinstead of the Atwater general factors resulted in a decrease in estimatedenergy content of between 4 and 6 percent. As previously discussed, however,these differences can be greater in some diets (Table 3.5). The use of ME foodconversion factors conceals the fact that energy expenditure derived fromassessments of heat production varies with the composition of the diet that isbeing metabolized. For this reason, it may be necessary to make corrections tothe estimates of food energy requirements in circumstances where the diet hassubstantial amounts of protein or fibre. The factors outlined in Box III.1 ofAnnex III may be used to facilitate these corrections.

Those few things are not the only important accessories of the digestive system there is also the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas....

Similar Essays: digestion process, food digestion, cheeseburger.

First, there is a need to consider whether the NME valuesapplied to foods for infants and small children differ from those for adultsowing to differences in developmental physiology, such as the maturation of manyenzyme systems and processes, and growth. Infants differ from adults inparticular in their ability to digest and absorb nutrients, although absorptionof protein, fat and carbohydrate is at or near adult levels after six months ofage (Fomon, 1993). They also differ in heat loss and maintenance of bodytemperature owing to their greater body surface area relative to weight andtheir lower heat-producing capacity (LeBlanc, 2002). And they differin growth. Whereas the normal state of the adult is “zero balance” -no net retention of energy or other nutrients - the normal state of infants andchildren is growth, which implies the retention of large amounts of energy andother nutrients as new tissue, although the energy cost of weight gain of tissueof similar composition does not differ appreciably from that of adults (Robertsand Young, 1988). Of the two principal differences between ME and NME factors(i.e. heat of fermentation and thermogenesis), heat of fermentation is a moresignificant factor in infants because of both the presence of non-digestiblecarbohydrates, such as oligosaccharides, in the infant’s diet (breastmilk)and the inability to digest fully carbohydrates that are normally fullyassimilated by the older child and adult (Aggett ., 2003).Differences in thermogenesis are due to differences in size compared withadults, and are not due to the foods themselves. ME factors appear to bereasonably valid for infants and small children; furthermore, neither ME nor NMEfactors have been specifically investigated in infants or youngchildren.

Then the circulatory system carries those essential particles to your muscles from the digestive and respiratory systems....

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Digestive Enzymes - Biology Online


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