Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky (Paper Included)
*Include the theorists interpretation of learning mathematical concepts and their relationship to the Common Core Standards (MATH)
*How do theories affect math instruction
*How do theories align or don`t align with common core standards
Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Kohlberg's theory of moral development have been essential in helping researchers grasp the biological and psychological changes that occur between birth and adolescence.
The dissemination of Vygotsky's ideas and the application ofhis work in diverse national contexts have contributed to "acomplex of related but heterogeneous proposals" (Rogoff,Radziszewska, & Masiello, 1995, p. 125). Vygotsky's ideasare condensed, and at times not fully developed as he died ata young age of tuberculosis. Much of his work remains untranslatedinto English. In spite of these difficulties, his theories areincreasingly influential in Western countries. The impact of Vygotsky'sideas has grown substantially in the United States, particularlysince the publication of a selection of his writings in in 1978.
Vygotsky Theory is about Zone of Proximal development, scaffolding of adults helping children in understanding and gaining knowledge and sociocultural development (Duchesne, McMaugh, Bochner & Krause (2013)....
Cognitive development can be explained in terms of the acquisition, construction and progressive change in thought processes such as memory, problem-solving and decision-making that occurs from childhood to adulthood (in Smith, P.K., Cowie, H & Blades, M.
For Vygotsky, cognitive, social, and motivational factors wereinterrelated in development. Thus it makes no sense to evaluatethe benefits of peer collaboration in purely intellectual terms,e.g., via individual achievement testing. A Vygotskian perspectivealso implies that the outcomes of peer collaboration must be evaluatedin context and over time. (p. 218)
The main concepts of cognitive theory focuses on the developmental process of thinking and how this process affects our actions, attitudes, beliefs and assumptions through a life span.
Based on the research outcomes, comparisons will be made to Piaget’s theory and the expected learning ability at their age-related development stage....
Using Piaget’s theory of development, the cognitive ability of two subjects, aged 4 and 18 years, are examined against the milestones of the respective preoperational and formal operational development stages.
The way that cultural and linguistic factors shape learningand development and the impact that these factors have on pedagogicalapproaches provide a theoretical foundation for socioculturalresearch of collaboration in the classroom. There is a growingliterature on cooperative learning and peer collaboration of interestto both Piagetian and Vygotskian researchers (Damon & Phelps,1989; Slavin, 1983, 1987; Tudge & Rogoff, 1989) which caninform classroom practice.
Piaget's theory has two main strands: first, an account of the mechanisms by which cognitive development takes place; and second, an account of the four main stages of cognitive development through which children pass.
Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory and Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral development theory have been essential for researchers to gain a better understanding of child development.
Jean Piaget, Swiss biologist and proponent of cognitive theory, developed a general thesis of cognitive theory; he divided the developmental process of thinking into four stages.
He is Swiss and although he had no background in psychology, he made a tremendous impact on the field, particularly in the area of cognitive, developmental and educational psychology.
To help explain the way that this social and participatorylearning took place, Vygotsky (1978) developed the concept ofthe zone of proximal development (ZPD), which he defined as "...thedistance between the actual developmental level as determinedthrough independent problem solving and the level of potentialdevelopment as determined through problem solving under adultguidance or in collaboration with more capable peers" (p.86). Sociocultural theorists, expanding the concept of the zoneof proximal development, increasingly conceptualize learning as (Cole & Engeström, 1993), (Chang-Wells & Wells, 1993),(John-Steiner,Panofsky, & Smith, 1994),and the result of the (Rogoff, 1994).