For your purposes in this essay, "culture" refers to contemporary youth culture and its ideas about style and "coolness," and also to advertising and marketing campaigns that revolve around the selling of products (clothing, food, cars, music, games, etc.) to American high school and college students.
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Thus, insection 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will notsuffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannottell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms ofsubject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Here he begins to soundlike a phenomenologist. But there is, in addition to the recourse to theexperiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move aswell, for the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictablenor mechanical. The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will notcomply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relationto the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to thelimits of the epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. Thepoint will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, butto establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemologicalhorizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for thefirst time, we might say, in relation to its own limit. Moreover, the criticalpractice in question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to arule of conduct. How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure ofthis limit? How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of liberty,”and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of virtue?
I believethis contrast that Foucault lays out between a command-based ethics and theethical practice which centrally engages the formation of the self shedsimportant light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offersin his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to be definedunderstanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of thisform of virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedienceto authority.
Foucaultgives us an indication of what he means by virtue in the introduction to At this juncture he makes clear thathe seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set ofprescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quitecoinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his ownthought an example of a non-prescriptive form of moral inquiry. In the sameway, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidlydefined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is saidmechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, isitself the example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, inits own thought, through the practice of a knowledge that is foreign to it.”(9) Moral experience has to do with a self-transformation prompted by a form ofknowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of moral experience willbe different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to the extent thatFoucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understandshimself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarilyor fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction.
The first result of these essays will be to validate much of what many of the LDS critics have said for years. Things that many members were told were 'anti-Mormon lies' will now be validated as facts. However, the authors of the essays tell the facts in such a way as to not make the issues seem to be faith challenging.
Editor Comment: By only releasing the 'first tier' essay of each troubling issue this will just continue to validate the critics' arguments that the Church is withholding information. We don't know why the Church would continue to make this same mistake that it has already acknowledged has become a problem for many members.
Each essay is planned to come in three lengths: a short answer of one to two paragraphs; a medium answer of four to six pages, and a long answer ranging anywhere from 25 to 50 pages. Each length is designed to appeal to a different segment of the general Church membership. The short answer is designed for someone who is curious but not deeply troubled. The medium answer is designed for Church members who have questions and want reassurance, but do not require in-depth analysis or scholarly apparatus. The long answer is designed for Church members who are more deeply troubled and may benefit from examining primary sources in greater detail, as well as other sources found in footnotes.
But howdo we move from understanding the reasons we might have for consenting to ademand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in thecourse of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the field ofreason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does oneinvariably lead to the other? Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons whichserve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as thetransformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporatedinto the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformationof the self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique areconsidered forms of “art,” stylizations and repetitions, suggesting that thereis no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who isstylized in response to the ethical demand upon it.
One of the biggest (doctrinal) differences between the LDS Church and other Christian churches is that they are led by a prophet that quite literally speaks for the Lord. (As explained in the Gospel Principles manual: "A prophet is a man called by God to be His representative on earth. When a prophet speaks for God, it is as if God were speaking - see ." ) We have to wonder why these essays are not more definitive. Every essay thus far released leaves the reader with many unanswered, troubling questions. These essays are being interpreted by critics as the Church's tacit admission that they are run by ordinary men like every other church: that there is no modern-day revelation and the prophets don't really communicate with deity. We would like to see evidence to the contrary, but the more that troubling historical and doctrinal issues are pushed to historians instead of prophets and apostles, the more the Church seems to be headed by men instead of the Lord as taught and believed by most Latter-day Saints.
In thecontext where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informsthe question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wondermentthat follows from it, forms the central impetus of critique. It is of courseunclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does makeclear, however, that he is not posing the possibility of radical anarchy, andthat the question is not how to become radically ungovernable. It is a specificquestion that emerges in relation to a specific form of government: “how not tobe governed , by that, in the name of those principles, withsuch and such an objective in mind and by means of such procedures, not likethat, not for that, not by them.”
Presently, the evolution of learning methods is still in progress and beyond the linguistic factors, we are probing into the sociolinguistic and pragmatic features of the language as well. This allows the implementation of various pedagogical means into the real-life communication that is set in the classroom. This ensures that students learn the language in the unrehearsed environments, and they are able to use it in the actual unrehearsed environments i.e. their lives. The lives are not rehearsed, according to Shakespeare, life is a stage show; however, I will personally reflect upon this is that this is an unrehearsed stage show. Therefore, the demand for unrehearsed applicability and functionality with spontaneity is very high, and this is the reason that CLT is widely being adopted.