This essay seeks to explore the moral ambiguities among different societies towards corruption and bribery, and also the dilemma businesses face when confronted with the varying practices while doing business globally using business ethics and theories....
This essay will discuss how corruption in the Qing bureaucracy, the incompetent leadership, the closed mentality of the Qing Government, shortage of land and impact of an alien Manchu regime highlighted the Qing Government as the main cause of the rebellion.
Considering its profound influence on Sicilian life, no history of twentieth-century Sicily can be complete or accurate without mentioning the most famous Sicilian fraternity. Tragically, the Mafia (and extreme political corruption generally) is the single socio-economic factor that distinguishes Sicily's economic base from those of other European Mediterranean regions such as Spain and Portugal - though it appears that Greece also has some serious problems with public spending and corruption. It is one of the world's most enduring criminal organizations, and one of the most serious social problems confronting Sicily today. In recent times, it has murdered judges, priests and children - though with its increasing grip on the legal economy (public contracts, stores, restaurants) - this rarely happens nowadays. Its hierarchy and vernacular are a reflection of Sicilian society itself, complete with religious allusions: Its ruling council is the "Cupola," Michele Greco, was nicknamed "The Pope," a leader of "clans." But, like the , the Mafia is all but invisible. You probably won't see it if you visit Sicily. You probably won't see many of its effects, either, unless you look very closely. Those who presume that today's Sicilians do not think about the Mafia are sorely mistaken. Anti-Mafia organisations such as (of which is a member) have done much to encourage merchants and other business owners to stand up against the Mafia, but there is still much work to be done.
The NACF was established to combat and prevent corruption, build integrity and raise awareness, and was launched in South Africa in Cape Town on June 15th, 2001. The 3rd National Anti-Corruption Summit was held from 4 to 5 August 2008.
2. In recent years, government has stepped up its anti-corruption activities. Its efforts have become more systemic, with greater emphasis on instituting appropriate policy measures to prevent corruption. Anti-corruption has been a priority in the programme of Government for many years and even the 2005 Programme of Action reflects this. The report below summarises the most significant domestic and international initiatives.
3. South Africa’s anti-corruption progress is well documented in five published documents, namely the Country Corruption Assessment report (Department of Public Service and Administration/UNODC, 2003), the Towards a Ten Year Review discussion document (The Presidency, 2004), the Public Integrity Index (Center for Public Integrity, 2004) and the National Integrity Systems country study report (Transparency International, 2005) and the record of the 2nd National Anti-corruption Summit (National Anti-corruption Forum, 2005). The Country Corruption Assessment and the National Integrity Systems reports contain detailed information on legal and institutional anti-corruption frameworks as well as perception and experience-type survey information.
5. In March 1997 government Ministers responsible for the South African National Crime Prevention Strategy established a programme committee to work on corruption. By June 1997 the Code of Conduct for the Public Service had become part of the regulations for every public servant. The programme committee’s work resulted in Government’s approval of a National Campaign against Corruption in 1998. The first step involved a Public Sector Anti-corruption Conference in November of 1998. Its resolutions addressed such issues as defining corruption, restoring a public service ethos, the role of civil society, the responsibilities of public sector managers, financial management and controls, and co-ordination of anti-corruption structures.
6. Fundamental to the fight against corruption was the involvement of all stakeholders. A National Anti-corruption Summit was convened in April 1999, involving government leaders, organised Business, organised religious bodies, the NGO sector, donor countries, the media, organised labour unions, academic and professional bodies and the public sector. The National Anti-corruption Summit created a powerful platform for the National Campaign Against Corruption in that it recognised the societal nature of corruption, and that the fight against corruption requires a national consensus and co-ordination of activities.
8. As a result of continuous consultation between the sectors in the period after the National Anti-corruption Summit, the National Anti-corruption Forum was created in June 2001 as the formal mechanism to bring the public, business and civil society sectors together to fight corruption in all aspects of our society. Government has consistently participated in this Forum and attempted to strengthen its work.
9. In the beginning of 2001, in line with Cabinet’s decision to fast track our anti-corruption work, the Minister for the Public Service and Administration created a unit to co-ordinate and integrate Government’s anti-corruption work at the level of policy and strategy implementation. Work started on establishing a strategy that balanced prevention, action against corruption and sustainable systems of prevention, information and communication. The Public Service Anti-Corruption Strategy was approved by Cabinet in January 2002, and implementation commenced in February of that year. This Strategy contains nine considerations that are inter-related and mutually supportive.
10. The requirements of the Constitution, the Public Service Anti-corruption Strategy, the recommendations of the National Anti-Corruption Summit and various of Government’s policy decisions have been translated into a number of anti-corruption measures. These are as follows:-
(b) Establishment of strong institutional capacity at national level to complement the basic police work, with such institutions such as the Public Protector, the National Prosecuting Authority, The Special Investigating Unit, the Public Service Commission, the Financial Intelligence Centre and the Auditor-General. These institutions, individually and collectively, are reaching levels of maturity and efficiency that have provided the country with strong anti-corruption capacity.