Over the past century, humans have directly or indirectly contributed the greenhouse effect through many of their economic and other activities for example, management actions such as, agriculture practices and fire suppression....
Therefore, the PESTEL Analysis is done with respect to those countries.Political Factors: (Tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, political stability → any influence on health/education/infrastructure)Economic Factors: (Economic growth, interest rates, currency exchange rate, FTA, Trade deficitsand inflation rate → impact on how business operate and make decisions)Social Factors: (cultural aspects → health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis of safety.
In this paper we summarise some of our recent work on consumer behaviour, drawing on recent developments in behavioural economics, particularly linked to sociology as much as psychology, in which consumers are embedded in a social context, so their behaviour is shaped by their interactions with other consumers. For the purpose of this paper we also allow consumption to cause environmental damage. Analysing the social context of consumption naturally lends itself to the use of game theoretic tools. We shall be concerned with two ways in which social interactions affect consumer preferences and behaviour: socially-embedded preferences, where the behaviour of other consumers affect an individual’s preferences and hence consumption (we consider two examples: conspicuous consumption and consumption norms) and socially-directed preferences where people display altruistic behaviour. Our aim is to show that building links between sociological and behavioural economic approaches to the study of consumer behaviour can lead to significant and surprising implications for conventional economic analysis and policy prescriptions, especially with respect to environmental policy.
Inefficient competition in emissions taxes for foreign direct investment creates benefits from international cooperation. In the presence of cross-border pollution, proximate (neighboring) countries have greater incentives to cooperate than distant ones as illustrated by a model of tax competition for mobile capital. Spatial econometrics is used to estimate participation in 110 international environmental treaties by 139 countries over 20 years. Empirical evidence of increased cooperation among proximate countries is provided. Furthermore, strategic responses in treaty participation vary across country groups between OECD and non-OECD countries and are most evident in regional agreements.