Some crucial developments that occurred during this period include the alliance that the colonial state struck with the remnants of the Caliphate rulers. Based on that alliance, the latter sustained the view that their empire was still intact and with high prospects of continuing its Southward expansion. This was so in spite of the absence of an army under their command and control. They believed that the alliance between themselves and the colonial state implied the protection of their interests by the latter. It was in the course of this period that most Southern cities and urban centers became cradles of nationalism and anti-colonial activism. But if conventional wisdom were to hold true, older cities in the North ought to have served this end. That the reverse was the case is not only symbolic in this essay, it underscores an earlier point that unlike in the North, the colonial state could not find the grounds for any meaningful interaction and exchange with the Southern groups who sustained their resistance to it. Another development that took place in the course of this period is that the colonial state was unable to find or create a basis to facilitate any meaningful interaction and exchange with the Southern groups who sustained their resistance to it through riots, other acts of open insubordination, and subsequently by way of nationalism.
The 1923 Constitution was revised in 1947 as the Richards Constitution, named after the governor. This constitution aimed to bring the north and south together in a central legislative council without destroying the power of either the three regional assemblies or the Native Authorities. The constitution affirmed a country with three regions, each with its own assembly. The Executive Council, however, was still European, the franchise was again limited to Lagos and Calabar, and the Regional Assemblies lacked legislative power. Both the assemblies and the legislative council would include official and non-official members nominated by the governor and local authorities. Nigerians wanted more than this in the postwar era, and objected to the arbitrary manner in which the new constitution was introduced. The NCNC took the lead in criticizing the Richards Constitution. It organized tours all over the country to raise funds to send a delegation to London to protest the constitution. The tours raised political and national consciousness.
The party was opposed to forced labor, land appropriation, plantation estates, and harsh laws. It called for municipal self-government for Lagos, compulsory education for all, a West African Court of Appeal, and the Africanization of the civil service. The party won all the elective seats in the Lagos Town Council between 1925 and 1938, and the Lagos seats in the Legislative Council in 1923, 1928, 1933, and 1943. The party was able to involve local chiefs, trade guilds, and market women, thus mobilizing critical segments of the population. Also, its newspaper, the Lagos Weekly Record, served to announce the activities of the party and to criticize the government. The party confined its activities to Lagos, understandably, because Lagos had a concentration of elite; however, its members in the Council also asked questions concerning other parts of the country. The NNDP did not challenge British rule, but only sought the means to be empowered within it. It hoped that the transfer of power would come as a gradual process. With just a few members in the Legislative Council, the voice of the party and the elite it represented was easily subdued.
C. S. Whitaker Jr., The Politics of Tradition: Continuity and Change in Northern Nigeria, 1946-1966 ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970). For attempts to reform the colonial rule at the time of decolonization consult: P. Kilby, Industrialization in an Open Economy: Nigeria 1945-1966
Adoption has changed considerably over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult adoption and inheritance issues toward children and family creation; its structure moving from recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity....