But in London helearns of some recent events in Southeast Asia — eventsinvolving a city in the jungle, and its mysterious single inhabitant,a thousand-headed man.
1527), mistress of Edward IV]
(1937)[Collection of Runyon's famous stories about New York City,selected and with a preface by the famous English satiricalpoet and mystery novelist
1. Choosing one of Ambrose Bierce’s stories, or Stephen Crane’s “Mystery of Heroism,” analyze how the story uses narrative voice, perspective, characterization, imagery and/or setting to show the complexity and grave consequences of war. How does the story challenge conventional notions of heroism?
Through the novel, the reader can trace the growth and development of Henry through these four stages: (1) romanticizing war and the heroic role each soldier plays, (2) facing the realities of war, (3) lying to himself to maintain his self-importance, and (4) realistic awareness of his abilities and place in life....
Towards all this external evil, the man within the breastassumes a warlike attitude, and affirms his ability to copesingle-handed with the infinite army of enemies. To this militaryattitude of the soul we give the name of Heroism. Its rudest form isthe contempt for safety and ease, which makes the attractiveness ofwar. It is a self-trust which slights the restraints of prudence, inthe plenitude of its energy and power to repair the harms it maysuffer. The hero is a mind of such balance that no disturbances canshake his will, but pleasantly, and, as it were, merrily, he advancesto his own music, alike in frightful alarms and in the tipsy mirth ofuniversal dissoluteness. There is somewhat not philosophical inheroism; there is somewhat not holy in it; it seems not to know thatother souls are of one texture with it; it has pride; it is theextreme of individual nature. Nevertheless, we must profoundlyrevere it. There is somewhat in great actions, which does not allowus to go behind them. Heroism feels and never reasons, and thereforeis always right; and although a different breeding, differentreligion, and greater intellectual activity would have modified oreven reversed the particular action, yet for the hero that thing hedoes is the highest deed, and is not open to the censure ofphilosophers or divines. It is the avowal of the unschooled man,that he finds a quality in him that is negligent of expense, ofhealth, of life, of danger, of hatred, of reproach, and knows thathis will is higher and more excellent than all actual and allpossible antagonists.
Alternatively, English is often lauded for its specificity. Henry James advised novelists to find the figure in the carpet, implying that details and accuracy were tantamount to literary expression. Is it possible that Japanese and English are two languages so far apart that translators can only reinvent their voices by creating entirely new works? Last week, Shibata, Goossen, and were in New York to host a series of events to introduce the third and latest English version of Monkey Business, as part of the PEN World Voices Festival. At their , Goossen quoted Charles Simic’s take on the magical absurdity of translating poetry: “It’s that pigheaded effort to convey in words of another language not only the literal meaning of a poem but an alien way of seeing things … To translate is not only to experience what makes each language distinct, but to draw close to the mystery of the relationship between word and thing, letter and spirit, self and world.”
(Exactly it emerges does not matter: in the crudest version of this solution good (2) is simply the heightening of happiness by the contrast with misery, in other versions it includes sympathy with suffering, heroism in facing danger, and the gradual decrease of first order evil afld increase of first order good.) It is also being assumed thatsecond order good is more important than first order good or evil, in particular that it more than outweighs the first order evil it involves.
It may calm the apprehension of calamity in the mostsusceptible heart to see how quick a bound nature has set to theutmost infliction of malice. We rapidly approach a brink over whichno enemy can follow us.
In the gloom of our ignorance of what shall be, in the hourwhen we are deaf to the higher voices, who does not envy those whohave seen safely to an end their manful endeavour? Who that sees themeanness of our politics, but inly congratulates Washington that heis long already wrapped in his shroud, and for ever safe; that he waslaid sweet in his grave, the hope of humanity not yet subjugated inhim? Who does not sometimes envy the good and brave, who are no moreto suffer from the tumults of the natural world, and await withcurious complacency the speedy term of his own conversation withfinite nature? And yet the love that will be annihilated sooner thantreacherous has already made death impossible, and affirms itself nomortal, but a native of the deeps of absolute and inextinguishablebeing."Let them rave:Thou art quiet in thy grave."
First, some might argue that such qualities as benevolence -- and the third order goodness which promotes benevolence -- have a merely derivative value, that they are not higher sorts of good, but merely means to good (1), that is, to happiness, so that it would be absurd for God to keep misery in existence in order to make possible the virtues of benevolence, heroism, etc.
Stylistically,the film is not so much brilliant as absolutely sound, rock-solid in its use ofHollywood studio craftsmanship. The director, Michael Curtiz, and the writers(Julius J. Epstein, Philip G. Epstein and ) all won Oscars. One oftheir key contributions was to show us that Rick, Ilsa and the others lived ina complex time and place. The richness of the supporting characters(Greenstreet as the corrupt club owner, Lorre as the sniveling cheat, Rains asthe subtly homosexual police chief and minor characters like the young girl whowill do anything to help her husband) set the moral stage for the decisions ofthe major characters. When this plot was remade in 1990 as “Havana,” Hollywoodpractices required all the big scenes to feature the big stars (and ) and the film suffered as a result; out of context, they weremore lovers than heroes.
Freedom, that is to say, is now treated as a third order good, and as being more valuable than second order goods (such as sympathy and heroism) would be if they were deterministically produced, and it is being assumed that second order evils, such as cruelty, are logically necessary accompaniments of freedom, just as pain is a logically necessary pre-condition of sympathy.
quivering me to a new identity,
Flames and ether making a rush for my veins,
Treacherous tip of me reaching and crowding to help them,
My flesh and blood playing out lightning to strike what is hardly
different from myself,
On all sides prurient provokers stiffening my limbs,
Straining the udder of my heart for its withheld drip,
Behaving licentious toward me, taking no denial,
Depriving me of my best as for a purpose,
Unbuttoning my clothes, holding me by the bare waist,
Deluding my confusion with the calm of the sunlight and pasture-fields,
Immodestly sliding the fellow-senses away,
They bribed to swap off with touch and go and graze at the edges of me,
No consideration, no regard for my draining strength or my anger,
Fetching the rest of the herd around to enjoy them a while,
Then all uniting to stand on a headland and worry me.