“European nations won empires in the Americas after1492, established colonies in India and Southeast Asia, and gained toeholds on the coast of Africa and China.
The Civil War, which Sidney Mead calls "thecenter of American history," was the second great event that involved the national self-understanding sodeeply as to require expression in civil religion.
The three components of the American System were establishing a new protective tariff, starting a new transportation system and restoring the national bank.
It would necessitate the incorporation of vital international symbolisminto our civil religion, or, perhaps a better way of putting it, it would resultin American civil religion becoming simply one part of a new civil religion ofthe world.
critically thinking. compare and contrast the idea of nationalism in the us versus the idea of nationalism in latin america. nationalism can usually be based on
Those nations that are for the moment "on our side" become "thefree world." A repressive and unstable military dictatorship in South Vietnambecomes "the free people of South Vietnam and their government." It is thenpart of the role of America as the New Jerusalem and "the last best hope ofearth" to defend such governments with treasure and eventually with blood.
In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed womens suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of women to England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men. Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of Indias 1950 Constitution.
Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and women. In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994.
I think it should be clear from the text that I conceive of the centraltradition of the American civil religion not as a form of national self-worshipbut as the subordination of the nation to ethical principles that transcend itin terms of which it should be judged.
Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization.
For many, nationalism is indelibly associated with some of the worst aspects of modern history, such as the destructive confidence of the Napoleon’s army and the murderous pride of Nazi Germany.
International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support womens suffrage. Socialists were bent on organizing working class women. Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in some countries.