Therefore the extent of the contribution is unclear.
There are differing explanations of obedience as Milgram put forward the agency theory and Zimbardo suggests obedience to be due to social power and the social identity theory.
Why Did People Follow Hitler and Obey Nazi Ideology?
Inflation and the horrid economy put Germans in a vulnerable spot, and Hitler was a strong leader they could look up to (Castillo).
Germans feared the spread of communism (Hornberger).
The people who opposed Hitler did not express their opinion in fear of being punished (Hornberger).
Conformity is defined as compliance with rules, laws, and societal standards.
Obedience is defined as compliance with a group or another person's authority (McLeod).
Facism was a common characteristic and was in response to the threat of communism.
Finding enemies in those who did not conform to Nazism ("The Nazi Ideology").
Is it possible to un-learn helplessness? The exhibition project “Learned Helplessness: On Authority, Obedience, and Control” is the result of a collective thinking process about this question. It brings together diverse positions analysing the phenomenon from the aspects of family, religion, psychology, politics, urbanism, gender, neuroscience and social education. The project encompasses a variety of artistic forms, including sound, video, object installations, photographs, graffiti and drawings – mainly produced for this exhibition. It aims at going beyond the artistic dialog that it suggests, and opening up a discussion platform for collective thinking and for debating the metaphor of .
The existing control mechanisms instrumentalise this aspect of human psychology in the form of social engineering and manipulation of societies. They employ the media, prisons, surveillance and security systems that operate on the basis of social psychology. They systematically manufacture a collective sense of helplessness. By using information overflow, normalizing corruption and injustice, monitoring privacy, manipulating law, operating a police system, applying psychological and physical violence, murdering, torturing, imprisoning, creating conflicts within societies, raising poverty and creating a financial need for their own existence, the ruling powers aggressively develop a system of even greater control.
The notion of “learned helplessness” can be summarized as a mental state that an individual or society arrives at when they internalize failure and stop trying to break out of an overpowering condition – even if that condition changes. Put forward by psychologist Martin Seligman in 1967, it has inspired a number of scholars working in the fields of gender politics, racism, genocide, authoritarianism and related subjects that are concerned with the dynamics of hegemony. It is through suppressive education processes, religious and moral principles (enacted both by families as well as institutions and cultures), violations of human rights and freedom, political pressure, and the continuous recall of the status quo by the media, that individuals and societies arrive at a fatal conclusion: That they do not have the necessary power to change the existing modus vivendi or the prevailing regimes.
The second one is that in obedience there will be a difference of status e.g : a doctor and a nurse whereas in conformity the group followed will have the same equal status....
Because of the field's situationistic perspective emphasizing the individual's susceptibility to the power of the immediate situation, social psychologists generally view the fairly high levels of obedience to authority displayed in Milgram's classic experiment as the paradigmatic example of evil behavior (Berkowitz, 1999)....
It is widely known that Plato, pupil of and close friend to Socrates, accepted that Human Beings have a " Tripartite Soul " where individual Human Psychology is composed of three aspects - Wisdom-Rationality, Spirited-Will and Appetite-Desire.
1. We "listen under" the direction of God's Spirit
2. "My sheep hear My voice" - Jn. 10:27
3. We are persuaded/convinced we have heard what He wants to do
1. "Obedience of faith" - Rom. 1:5; 16:26
2. Our receptivity of His activity
3. He is the dynamic of His own demands
1. Not proceduralized external actions of obedience
2. Branch obeys the Vine (Jn. 15:1-11). To abide is to obey.
1. Christians are free to obey. Not slaves to sin.
2. We are most free when we obey. Free to be man as God intended.
Meeus and Raaijmaker Conducted a lab study in the Netherlands in which participants were asked to make 15 increasingly distressing comments during an interview regarding how well the applicant (confederate) was doing on a test.
Success on the test meant that the applicant would get the job
The applicant became more distressed as the experiment continued
The participants were seen as obedient
92% obeyed but reported that they 'intensely disliked' the experience and only obeyed because they thought that it would aid the applicant in getting the job.
96% thought it was a real life situation
During that time, there was an exaggerated strain to help as it was hard to find employment in the Netherlands.
Participants were willing to cause the applicant psychological harm in order to fulfill the instructions of the authority figure which demonstrates the negative effects that blind obedience has.
A. Greek perspective
1. Primary emphasis on seeing spiritual things rather than hearing (see mysteries, visions)
2. Hear or obey yourself; your reason, thoughts, feelings
B. Hebrew perspective
1. Emphasis on hearing God rather than seeing God
2. Developed into
a. Historical remembrance of having heard God
b. Futuristic expectation of seeing God (Isa. 60:4,5)
3. Prophetic rebuke for failure to hear, listen, or obey
4. Rabbinical emphasis on legalistic hearing/obeying the Law
C. Christian perspective
1. Radically new meaning of "obedience" in new covenant
2. Relational context of obedience becomes ontological
3. The Word to be heard/obeyed is a Person (Jn. 1:1,14)
4. Receptivity of Christ is the "obedience of faith" (Rom. 1:5; 16:26)
5. Indwelling presence of Spirit of Christ is...
a. "law written in our hearts" - Heb. 8:10; 10:16; Jere. 31:33
b. basis of revelation - Phil. 3:15
c. dynamic for expressing what God wants to do in us
6. The Christian individual is still responsible...
a. to listen in order to discern what Christ wants to do
b. to be convinced and persuaded that what he has heard from Christ is what God wants to be and do
All these studies demonstrated blind obedience The findings show that the majority of participants were following the instructions of the authority figure by causing harm, psychologically and physically to the confederate.
These studies show why blind obedience occurs and therefore give us an idea about how it can be reduced.