The learning strategies adopted for this project were appropriate considering that there is sufficient research using education packages from other areas, appropriate text books, web/literature search and input of colleagues.
Clinical decision making and collaboration process
Clinical decision making process for people with Parkinson’s disease entails taking all available information and then formulating a plan to address current problems and anticipate future ones (Aschenvrenner & Venable 2008, p.154).
The main issue relates to compulsory post basic education for the specialist nurses (Tuite 2009, p.215)
c) Discussions & analysis
This project has enabled the researcher to gain valuable information on the learning contract whose aim was to research and compile a learning package on the medications used in Parkinson’ Disease.
Many journals and research studies have been published in the recent past reflecting one or moer the different medical interventions to the Parkinson’s disease.
The specific drug treatments reviewed in this project are: Levodopa, Anticholinergics, Amantadine, COMT inhibitors, and DA agonists.
a) Literature Review
There has been much research on Parkinson’s disease and particularly on the medication of the disease.
In 1967, Duvoisin showed that centrally operating cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, was responsible for increased severity of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, and the effects could be countered by anticholinergic drugs (Movement Disorders 2002, p.7).
According to Aschenbrenner & Venable (2008), Parkinson disease occurs naturally and external stimulus, such as trauma or virus, does not trigger it.
Parkinson disease usually affects patients aged 50 years and older; however researchers have recently established that parkin gene, a mutated gene, can trigger the disease at much younger age (Aschenbrenner & Venable 2008, p.244).
Hallett and Poewe (2008) have expressed that the progress in functional neurosurgery in the recent past stand as the most significant therapeutic advance in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease after the introduction of levodopa.
Not only is PD such an awful disease, but it is extremely widespread, afflicting a large percentage of the population Even more widespread than the disease, however, is the interest to talk about PD, as is demonstrated by the thousands of Parkinsonism forums I came across in my search on the net (8 is an example).
In other words, this is a new principle of human genetics that may explain why some diseases currently thought of as sporadic, like Parkinson's, may in fact be inherited in an unorthodox way" (10).
Nashold 1959 demonstrated that the direct injection when conducting neurosurgery of acetylcholine into the globus of persons with Parkinson’s disease resulted in hyped tremor in the contralateral extremities, which was cut down by the subsequent injection of the anticholinergic drug (Movement Disorders 2002, p.7).
Medication of Parkinson’s disease
There are several different treatments (therapeutic interventions) that are available to alleviate the quality of life together with the psychological and physical morbidity of people living with Parkinson’s disease (Bunting-Perry 2007, p.23).
Antiparkinson drugs are used to treat Parkinson disease, where the objective of the therapy is to restore the lost balance between dopamine and acetylcholine.
Parkinson’s disease is the topic of this project because of the high prevalence of the disease among the world population (over 6 million people affected) and the fact that it is still an idiopathic disorder (its cause is yet to be found).
In this project, evidence of the outcome of the learning contract uses relevant internet literature search, PowerPoint presentation and videos.
An anti-Parkinson drug refers to any medication used to improve the symptoms of Parkisons disease.
Pharmacologists believe that levodopa is the most effective drug against symptoms of Parkinson’s disease because of its great ability to reduce difficulties of moving part or all of the body (alkinesia) and rigidity (Jankovic & Tolosa 2006, p.214).
It is also estimated that the drug does not work for about 25% of people with Parkinson’s disease.
Side effects of levodopa
There are a number of possible side effects of Levodopa.
If combined, the consideration of all four theories presented above (free radicals, mysterious neuronal apoptosis, environmental toxins, and genetic inheritance) could lead to even further advances in the ongoing battle against Parkinson's disease.