There is one point over which we dig in our heels and take a strong stand: We feel that all women considering an abortion should be fully informed, as free as possible from outside manipulation from friends and family members, and allowed to make up her own mind, carefully.
The case proceeded against On 1998-APR-20, all of the defendants were foundguilty of having engaged in 21 acts of extortion. The US Federal jury ordered the threeactivists and the two organizations to pay $85,962.92 in damages. The amount was basedupon the cost of increased security arrangements during the blockade. Because of thenature of the RICO act, these damages were tripled to about $258,000. The way became clearfor up to 1000 abortion clinics in the US to follow the lead of the the Milwaukee andWilmington clinics, bring similar lawsuits, and claim massive damages.
The anti-choice argument against that is that the woman's right to control her body does not take precedence over the fetus's right to life. Some extremists argue that even pregnancies resulting from rape are part of a divine plan.
It is often argued that women have a right to control their own reproductive capacity and that abortion is a vital tool for doing this. Proponents of this view state that nobody has the right to force a woman to undergo a nine month pregnancy, with all the accompanying discomfort and serious health risks, if she does not want to. Some say that the right to abortion is absolute and it is acceptable to use it as a method of birth control; other pro-choice advocates disagree but believe it should be available in cases where pregnancy will endanger the woman's health, the fetus has a severe congenital defect or the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest.
A counter to this is to argue that before a certain stage in development, usually set by law at around 20 weeks, the fetus lacks the attributes that define a human being such as self-awareness or the capacity to feel pain. They argue that while it is a potential human being it is not yet an actual one. It is also sometimes pointed out that around 25% of pregnancies spontaneously abort anyway.
A powerful argument against abortion is that everyone has a right to life. Under this view a fetus, an embryo or in some religious doctrines even a newly fertilized egg is a human being with a right to live.
Abortion is a very contentious issue and as such frequently comes up in debates. When taking part in a debate on abortion there are a number of topics that can be discussed. The aim of this short essay is to look at four of the most important. The author will not take either side, simply explain what the issues and arguments are.
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On 2003-FEB-26, the U.S. Supreme Court voted in an unusual 8:1 split that RICO cannot be used against pro-life clinic protesters. The ruling released Joseph Scheidler of and others from having to pay $258,000 in judgments. A national injunction which prevented the groups from interfering with abortion clinics was cancelled. Chief Justice William Rehnquist wrote for the majority: "" 8
On 2002-DEC-4, the Court heard arguments. Roy Englert Jr., a lawyer representing and some anti-abortion leaders said that if the Court does not intervene, then leaders of any movement could be severely punished if their "." An attorney representing the and a group of abortion clinics said the laws protect businesses from violent protests that drive away clients. According to the Associated Press, ".
One of the conservativeJustices, Antonin Scalia, who has traditionally opposed abortion access, appears to oppose the use of RICO. He said: "to the clinics."Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, a supporter of abortion access seems to disagree. She said: "" 7
Some anti-abortion activists argue that abortion may lead to depression and possibly suicide as a result of guilt feelings. A minority claim that abortion increases a woman's risk of suffering from breast cancer, and should be banned on precautionary grounds.
Defense lawyer Tom Brejcha disagreed with the US Supreme Court ruling of 1994 bystating that RICO should not have been used in this case. "RICO is terriblyflawed, vague and over-broad." The defendants claimed that they do notadvocate violence, and that they are not responsible for the excesses of a few of theirfollowers who acted on their own.
In 1993, the case was appealed to the as National Organization forWomen v. Scheidler 114 S. Ct. 798. NOW argued that RICO could be usedagainst abortion clinic blockaders. They argued that the latter formed an nationalconspiracy to eliminate access to abortion clinics through the use of extortion andharassment, with the goal of driving clinics out of business. In 1994-JAN, the SupremeCourt overruled the Circuit Court decision and allowed the lawsuit to proceed. The voteto consider the case was unanimous. They determined that the term "enterprise" could includean individual, or group of individuals, a partnership, corporation, association or otherlegal entity. The anti-abortion groups were found to have "conspired to shut downabortion clinics through a pattern of racketeering activity..."